What is the casting process?


Release time:

2023-12-22

Casting refers to the process of melting metal into a liquid that meets certain requirements, cooling, solidification, and cleaning, and pouring it into a mold to obtain castings (parts or billets) with predetermined shapes, sizes, and properties. The basic process of modern mechanical manufacturing industry.

Casting refers to the process of melting metal into a liquid that meets certain requirements, cooling, solidification, and cleaning, and pouring it into a mold to obtain castings (parts or billets) with predetermined shapes, sizes, and properties. The basic process of modern mechanical manufacturing industry.

Casting raw materials with low cost and complex shapes, especially those with complex cavities, can demonstrate their economy; At the same time, it has wide adaptability and good comprehensive mechanical properties. However, there are many materials and equipment required for casting production (such as metal, wood, fuel, forming materials, etc.) and equipment (such as metallurgical furnaces, sand mixers, forming machines, core making machines, sandblasting machines, shot blasting machines, cast iron plates, etc.), which can produce dust, harmful gases, and noise, polluting the environment.

Casting is an early metal hot working process mastered by humans, with a history of about 6000 years. In 3200 BC, copper frog castings appeared in Mesopotamia. Between the 13th and 10th centuries BC, China had entered the heyday of bronze casting, and its technology had reached a very high level. For example, the 875 kilogram Simu Wang Ding from the Shang Dynasty, the Yihou Zunpan from the Warring States period, and the transparent mirror from the Western Han Dynasty are all representative products of ancient casting. Early casting was deeply influenced by pottery. Castings are mostly tools or utensils used in agricultural production, religion, daily life, etc., with a strong artistic color. In 513 BC, China produced the world's earliest recorded cast iron piece - the golden cauldron (approximately 270 kilograms). Around the 8th century, Europe began producing cast iron parts. After the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century, castings entered a new era of serving large-scale industries. In the 20th century, the development of casting was very rapid. We have successively developed casting metal materials such as ductile iron, malleable iron, ultra-low carbon stainless steel, aluminum copper, aluminum silicon, aluminum magnesium alloy, titanium based, nickel based alloy, and invented a new process for inoculating gray cast iron. After the 1950s, new technologies such as wet sand high-pressure molding, chemical hardening sand molding and coring, negative pressure molding, and other special casting, shot peening, and cleaning emerged.

There are many types of castings, traditionally divided into: ① ordinary sand casting, including wet sand mold, dry sand mold, and chemically hardened sand mold. ② Special casting can also be divided into two categories based on the molding material: special casting with natural mineral sand as the main molding material (such as investment casting, clay casting, casting workshop shell casting, negative pressure casting, full mold casting, ceramic mold casting, etc.) and special casting with metal as the main molding material (such as metal mold casting, pressure casting, continuous casting, low-pressure casting, centrifugal casting, etc.).

The casting process typically includes:

① Prepare a mold (a container that turns liquid metal into a solid casting). Casting molds can be divided into sand molds, metal molds, ceramic molds, clay molds, graphite molds, etc. according to the materials used. The quality of mold preparation is the main factor affecting the quality of castings;

② The melting and pouring of cast metals, including cast iron, cast steel, and cast non-ferrous alloys;

③ Casting treatment and inspection, including removing foreign objects from the core and casting surface, removing gates and risers, removing burrs, cracks, and other protrusions, as well as heat treatment, forming, rust prevention treatment, and rough machining.

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